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# GMAT Critical Reasoning Questions Practice Test 3

GMAT
Critical Reasoning Questions Practice Test 3 for those who want to test their GMAT – Graduate Management Admission Test skills. GMAT is a standardized test used for the evaluation of students seeking admission in BBA, MBA, and post-graduate studies in Pakistan or abroad. Management studies provide you with the skills, preparation, and credentials you need to accelerate your career growth. MBA is the most popular degree program in Pakistan. LUMS and IBA MBA programs are the most applied in Pakistan.

Each quiz question in this course is made up of proven interesting researched concepts that test your awareness and grasp of the subject. Detailed feedback for the quiz answers is provided too.

INSTRUCTIONS:

• This Quiz is related to GMAT Critical Reasoning Questions Practice Test 3in this series
• If you have good understanding about the subject, then you can attempt it
• There will be 10 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) in this test
• Questions will be randomly changed every time you start this test
• You should practice more and more to get high marks
• You can retake this test as many time as you like
• If you feel that any Incorrect Answer to a Question, simply Comment us about the Question.

#### Hotco oil burners, designed to be used in asphalt plants, are so efficient that Hotco will sell one to the Clifton Asphalt plant for no payment other than the cost savings between the total amount the asphalt plant actually paid for oil using its former burner during the last two years and the total amount it will pay for oil using the Hotco burner during the next two years. On installation, the plant will make an estimated payment, which will be adjusted after two years to equal the actual cost savings.Which of the following, if it occurred, would constitute a disadvantage for Hotco of the plan described above?

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I am giving it a try here to explain this:Hotco will run into losses if the diference in the amount paid by Clifton asphalt manufacturing company in the last 2 yrs is close enuf to the cost that the compnay will pay in the nex t2 yrs. ok !!Now lets analyse the answers.A) Another manufacturer’s introduction to the market of a similarly efficient burner - there is no comparision with other manufacturers. irrelevant. INCORRECTB) The Clifton Asphalt plant’s need for more than one new burner. - out of scope. INCORRECTC) Very poor efficiency in the Clifton Asphalt plant’s old burner. - might sound true. but this is a catch. we cannot compare efficiencies of old and new burner.INCORRECTD) A decrease in the demand for asphalt. - we have no clue what demand of asphalt has to do with oil burners. this is verbal section in gmat not a physics exam in a college. INCORRECT.E) A steady increase in the price of oil beginning soon after the new burner is installed- If the price of oil increases, the company will have to pay more for its oil in the coming 2 yrs. so the difference in price will reduce and HETCO will receive less in return. - CORRECT.

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#### Most of the year, the hermit thrush, a North American songbird, eats a diet consisting mainly of insects, but in autumn, as the thrushes migrate to their Central and South American wintering grounds, they feed almost exclusively on wild berries. Wild berries, however, are not as rich in calories as insects, yet thrushes need to consume plenty of calories in order to complete their migration. One possible explanation is that berries contain other nutrients that thrushes need for migration and that insects lack.Which of the following, if true, most seriously calls into question the explanation given for the thrush’s diet during migration?

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Premise - Hermits feed on insects most of the times but during migration they feed on wild berries though wild berries are not as rich in calories as insects are and Hermits require plenty of calories during migration.Conclusion - Berries contain other nutrients that Hermits need for migration and that insects lack.If we want to weaken the conclusion we should look for a choice which provides an alternate reason as to why the Hermits prefer eating berries during Migration.There could be various reasons one can think of- It is possible that no insects are available that the Hermits can eat during migration.- Or some other reason.A. Hermit thrushes, if undernourished, are unable to complete their autumn migration before the onset of winter.- There is not mention of undernourishment in either the premise or the conclusion. This statement does not affect the conclusion in any way.B. Insect species contain certain nutrients that are not found in Wild berries.- This statement too does not affect the conclusion. Even if Insect species contain certain nutrients that are not found in berries , this choice does not provide any reason as to why the hermits prefer berries to insects during migration.C. For songbirds, catching insects requires the expenditure of significantly more calories than eating wild berries does.- This choice provides an alternate reason to the fact that hermits prefer berries. If catching insects requires significantly more calories than catching wild berries does then the hermits by choice have berries because they would want to conserve energy during their migration.D. Along the hermit thrushes’ migration routes, insects are abundant throughout the migration season.- Does not provide any reason as to why hermits prefer berries.E. There are some species of wild berries that hermit thrushes generally do not eat, even though these berry species are exceptionally rich in calories.- Does not affect the conclusion. Even if there are some species that are rich and hermits do not eat them this choice does not provide any alternate cause.===================================================================Prethink : What's the reason that Thrushs consume only Wild Berries not Insects during migration ? Check the answers -A. Hermit thrushes, [color=#ff0000]if undernourished, are unable to complete their autumn migration before the onset of winter.Out of scope , this options talks about undernourishment.B. Insect species contain certain nutrients that are not found in Wild berries.Out of scope , this options talks about other nutrients which is not under discussion in the present context.C. For songbirds, catching insects requires the expenditure of significantly more calories than eating wild berries does.Calorie Used : Catching Insects > Eating wild berries ; for same calorific intake...Say 10 KCAL of Energy is consumed ...Catching Insects = 4KCALEating wild berries = 3 KCALEnergy Requirement for flight = 5KCALKeeping in mind that the bird requires energy for flight it is definitely beneficial for the bird to use it economically and consume high calorie food/nutrients...D. Along the hermit thrushes’ migration routes, insects are abundant throughout the migration season.So, why do the birds not catch insects ? Can not weaken the conclusion.E. There are some species of wild berries that hermit thrushes generally do not eat, even though these berry species are exceptionally rich in calories.Completely out of scope and irrelevant under present context..Hence IMHO definitely with (C)_________________Thanks and Regards

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#### Firms adopting “profit-related-pay” (PRP) contracts pay wages at levels that vary with the firm’s profits. In the metalworking industry last year, firms with PRP contracts in place showed productivity per worker on average 13 percent higher than that of their competitors who used more traditional contracts.If, on the basis of the evidence above, it is argued that PRP contracts increase worker productivity, which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken that argument?

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In addition to what akhileshgupta already mentioned, understanding and rephrasing may also help.Conclusion: PRP contract increase productivity. (Note: Here conclusion is a part of the question. Many times it is the part of the passage, in which case you will have to locate the conclusion)Weaken: PRP contract doesn't increase productivity; something else does or PRP contract decreases productivity by having some negative effect.(A) Results similar to those cited for the metal-working industry have been found in other industries wherePRP contracts are used.It means the productivity is seen in other industries as well. It is a positive of PRP, not negative.(B) Under PRP contracts costs other than labor costs, such as plant, machinery, and energy, make up anincreased proportion of the total cost of each unit of output.This is just giving us a fact that is not connected and doesn't mention productivity.(C) Because introducing PRP contracts greatly changes individual workers’ relationships to the firm,negotiating the introduction of PRP contracts in complex and time consuming.Something which is difficult/very complex to execute or understand is usually not a weakener. If none of the other options makes sense, then we can reluctantly choose these type of statement but in most cases, we can just ignore these.(D) Many firms in the metalworking industry have modernized production equipment in the last five years,and most of these introduced PRP contracts at the same time.Here this statement presents a possibility that the productivity increase could be due to modern machines AND NOT due to PRP contracts. Thus, this is a weakening statement since it gives us an alternate cause of the effect.----CORRECT WEAKENING STATEMENT(E) In firms in the metalworking industry where PRP contracts are in place, the average take-home pay is 15percent higher than it is in those firms where workers have more traditional contracts.This is another fact which remotely suggests that PRP contract is good, not bad.

#### Many names that people think of as Irish were actually brought to Ireland by the Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland in the 12th century. Names like Seamus, Patrick, and Sean are so widespread because of the Catholic Church’s requirements that Irish sons and daughters be named after saints. Seamus is the Gaelic version of James, and Sean is the Gaelic version of John. Criminal laws in Ireland from the 1500s to the 1900s forbade parents from giving their children traditional Irish names like Cathal, Aodh, and Brian. Now that parents are free to do so, they should give their children these long-forgotten, traditional names that are truly Irish.Which of the following inferences can be drawn from the above argument?

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Many names that people think of as Irish were actually brought to Ireland by the Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland in the 12th century. Names like Seamus, Patrick, and Sean are so widespread because of the Catholic Church’s requirements that Irish sons and daughters be named after saints. Seamus is the Gaelic version of James, and Sean is the Gaelic version of John. Criminal laws in Ireland from the 1500s to the 1900s forbade parents from giving their children traditional Irish names like Cathal, Aodh, and Brian. Now that parents are free to do so, they should give their children these long-forgotten, traditional names that are truly Irish.Which of the following inferences can be drawn from the above argument?(A) The author of the argument considers names like Aodh and Brian that were used in Ireland since before the 12th century to be “traditional.”-> completely opposite.(B) Irish parents prefer to give their children names that are as traditionally Irish as possible.-> author prefers these names, not parents.(C) Parents in Ireland are now free to give their children any name that they choose.-> no. we do not know whether parents are free to give their children names such as 'must_destroy_ireland_I_am_robot'.(D) The author of the argument feels that, even after hundreds of years of use, names like Patrick, Seamus, and Sean are still not “truly Irish.”-> did not think of this, but interesting point. These names have been in use for hundreds of years of use, but the author thinks parents should name their children more 'true Irish', not the names in use.(E) The author of the argument is still bitter about the introduction of non-Irish names into Ireland in the 12th century.Is he/she? The passage never mention anything about the feeling of the author.

#### There is a great deal of geographical variation in the frequency of many surgical procedures—up to tenfold variation per hundred thousand between different areas in the numbers of hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies.To support a conclusion that much of the variation is due to unnecessary surgical procedure, it would be most important to establish which of the following?

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There is a great deal of geographical variation in the frequency of many surgical procedures—up to tenfold variation per hundred thousand between different areas in the numbers of hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies.To support a conclusion that much of the variation is due to unnecessary surgical procedure, it would be most important to establish which of the following?(A) A local board of review to each hospital examines the records of every operation to determine whether the surgical procedure was necessary. --It weakens the argument(B) The variation is unrelated to factors (other than the surgical procedures themselves) that influence the incidence of diseases for which surgery might be considered. --Correct. It removes the possibility that any other factor might impact the procedure(C) There are several categories of surgical procedure (other than hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies) that are often performed unnecessarily. --Out of scope(D) For certain surgical procedures, it is difficult to determine after the operation whether the procedures were necessary or whether alternative treatment would have succeeded. --This weakens the argument(E) With respect to how often they are performed unnecessarily, hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies are representative of surgical procedures in general. --Out of scope

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#### A new law gives ownership of patents—documents providing exclusive right to make and sell an invention—to universities, not the government, when those patents result from government-sponsored university research. Administrators at Logos University plan to sell any patents they acquire to corporations in order to fund programs to improve undergraduate teaching.Which of the following, if true, would cast most doubt on the viability of the college administrators’ plan described above?

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First of all,a very interesting doubt! After a long time, I thought about a CR question for 15 minutes.I'll first discuss option A and then option D:Option A:(A) Profit-making corporations interested in developing products based on patents held by universities are likely to try to serve as exclusive sponsors of ongoing university research projects.What does it mean?It means that corporations are likely to do one thing (one thing = exclusive sponsor of ongoing research projects). Does it in any way mean that they will not do the other thing (other thing = fund programs to improve undergraduate teaching)? Rather, on the contrary, the universities may make it a condition for anyone becoming an exclusive sponsor to also fund undergraduate teaching. Isn't it?Option D:First of all, your doubt here is different from that of dav373. He said that option D indicates that logos university will not patents and hence, this option is irrelevant since we are talking about patents and not the absence of patents.On the other hand, you say that if logos university has a patent, then corporations will need to pay logos university to access the payment and therefore, this option does not weaken the argument.Am I correct in my understanding?Now, here I agree with dav373 that if the research is duplicate of the research already completed by corporations, then there is hardly a possibility of logos university getting patents. In such a case, since it does not have patents, it will not be able to fund programs to improve undergraduate training. So, now, we are less sure of their plan. Therefore, option D actually weakens the viability of the plan.Now, you can see that I disagree with dav373 that option D is irrelevant just because it means that logos university will not get patents. If I say thatI plan to sell my upcoming book to pay off my tuition fees.Can't you weaken my plan by saying that no one will even publish that book?Thanks,

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## Entrepreneurship MCQs with Answers Part # 3

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