GMAT Critical Reasoning Questions Practice Test 3 for those who want to test their GMAT – Graduate Management Admission Test skills. GMAT is a standardized test used for the evaluation of students seeking admission in BBA, MBA, and post-graduate studies in Pakistan or abroad. Management studies provide you with the skills, preparation, and credentials you need to accelerate your career growth. MBA is the most popular degree program in Pakistan. LUMS and IBA MBA programs are the most applied in Pakistan.
Each quiz question in this course is made up of proven interesting researched concepts that test your awareness and grasp of the subject. Detailed feedback for the quiz answers is provided too.
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Firms adopting “profit-related-pay” (PRP) contracts pay wages at levels that vary with the firm’s profits. In the metalworking industry last year, firms with PRP contracts in place showed productivity per worker on average 13 percent higher than that of their competitors who used more traditional contracts. If, on the basis of the evidence above, it is argued that PRP contracts increase worker productivity, which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken that argument?
In addition to what akhileshgupta already mentioned, understanding and rephrasing may also help. Conclusion: PRP contract increase productivity. (Note: Here conclusion is a part of the question. Many times it is the part of the passage, in which case you will have to locate the conclusion) Weaken: PRP contract doesn't increase productivity; something else does or PRP contract decreases productivity by having some negative effect. (A) Results similar to those cited for the metal-working industry have been found in other industries where PRP contracts are used. It means the productivity is seen in other industries as well. It is a positive of PRP, not negative. (B) Under PRP contracts costs other than labor costs, such as plant, machinery, and energy, make up an increased proportion of the total cost of each unit of output. This is just giving us a fact that is not connected and doesn't mention productivity. (C) Because introducing PRP contracts greatly changes individual workers’ relationships to the firm, negotiating the introduction of PRP contracts in complex and time consuming. Something which is difficult/very complex to execute or understand is usually not a weakener. If none of the other options makes sense, then we can reluctantly choose these type of statement but in most cases, we can just ignore these. (D) Many firms in the metalworking industry have modernized production equipment in the last five years, and most of these introduced PRP contracts at the same time. Here this statement presents a possibility that the productivity increase could be due to modern machines AND NOT due to PRP contracts. Thus, this is a weakening statement since it gives us an alternate cause of the effect. ----CORRECT WEAKENING STATEMENT (E) In firms in the metalworking industry where PRP contracts are in place, the average take-home pay is 15 percent higher than it is in those firms where workers have more traditional contracts. This is another fact which remotely suggests that PRP contract is good, not bad.
Many names that people think of as Irish were actually brought to Ireland by the Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland in the 12th century. Names like Seamus, Patrick, and Sean are so widespread because of the Catholic Church’s requirements that Irish sons and daughters be named after saints. Seamus is the Gaelic version of James, and Sean is the Gaelic version of John. Criminal laws in Ireland from the 1500s to the 1900s forbade parents from giving their children traditional Irish names like Cathal, Aodh, and Brian. Now that parents are free to do so, they should give their children these long-forgotten, traditional names that are truly Irish. Which of the following inferences can be drawn from the above argument?
Many names that people think of as Irish were actually brought to Ireland by the Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland in the 12th century. Names like Seamus, Patrick, and Sean are so widespread because of the Catholic Church’s requirements that Irish sons and daughters be named after saints. Seamus is the Gaelic version of James, and Sean is the Gaelic version of John. Criminal laws in Ireland from the 1500s to the 1900s forbade parents from giving their children traditional Irish names like Cathal, Aodh, and Brian. Now that parents are free to do so, they should give their children these long-forgotten, traditional names that are truly Irish. Which of the following inferences can be drawn from the above argument? (A) The author of the argument considers names like Aodh and Brian that were used in Ireland since before the 12th century to be “traditional.” -> completely opposite. (B) Irish parents prefer to give their children names that are as traditionally Irish as possible. -> author prefers these names, not parents. (C) Parents in Ireland are now free to give their children any name that they choose. -> no. we do not know whether parents are free to give their children names such as 'must_destroy_ireland_I_am_robot'. (D) The author of the argument feels that, even after hundreds of years of use, names like Patrick, Seamus, and Sean are still not “truly Irish.” -> did not think of this, but interesting point. These names have been in use for hundreds of years of use, but the author thinks parents should name their children more 'true Irish', not the names in use. (E) The author of the argument is still bitter about the introduction of non-Irish names into Ireland in the 12th century. Is he/she? The passage never mention anything about the feeling of the author.
Near Chicago a newly built hydroponic spinach “factory,” a completely controlled environment for growing spinach, produces on 1 acre of floor space what it takes 100 acres of fields to produce. Expenses, especially for electricity, are high, however, and the spinach produced costs about four times as much as washed California field spinach, the spinach commonly sold throughout the United States. Which of the following, if true, best supports a projection that the spinach-growing facility near Chicago will be profitable?
We need to explain how spinach-growing facility near Chicago could be profitable. Note that the argument tells us that the production of factory spinach costs 4 times as much as field spinach. Say field spinach costs $1 per pack to produce and factory spinach costs $4 per pack to produce. To be profitable factory spinach will need to be sold at $5 per pack but field spinach can be easily sold at $1.50 per pack. So it seems that no one will buy the factory spinach because it will be way too expensive relative to the field spinach. Also note that productivity per acre has no role to play here. We have been given that factory spinach production costs 4 time more. So it includes the cost of land and resources. When you sum it all up, you see that cost per packet for factory spinach is 4 times as much. Let's look at the options now. We need one which can tell us why people may be willing to buy the much more expensive factory spinach. (A) Once the operators of the facility are experienced, they will be able to cut operating expenses by about 25 percent. A 25% cut and that too only in operating costs (not in the fixed costs) will have no meaningful effect. The cost of production might go down to $3.5 per pack. We will still need to sell it at a much higher cost that field spinach. (B) There is virtually no scope for any further reduction in the cost per pound for California field spinach. Out of scope. We don't even know if there is any scope of cost reduction in factory spinach. And even if there is, we don't know how much. Also scope of reduction and actual reduction are very different things. (C) Unlike washed fi eld spinach, the hydroponically grown spinach is untainted by any pesticides or herbicides and thus will sell at exceptionally high prices to such customers as health food restaurants. Now here is a reason why people may buy the $5 per pack spinach. This may mean that the factory may be profitable after all. (D) Since spinach is a crop that ships relatively well, the market for the hydroponically grown spinach is no more limited to the Chicago area than the market for California fi eld spinach is to California. The range of the market is not important. We can put the spinach in stores all across the world; the point is will people buy it? (E) A second hydroponic facility is being built in Canada, taking advantage of inexpensive electricity and high vegetable prices. Out of scope. We are worried about this factory only. Answer (C)
In parts of South America, vitamin-A deficiency is a serious health problem, especially among children. In one region, agriculturists hope to improve nutrition by encouraging farmers to plant a new variety of sweet potato called SPK004 that is rich in betacarotene, which the body converts into vitamin A. The plan has good chances of success, since sweet potato is a staple of the region's diet and agriculture, and the varieties currently grown contain little beta-carotene. Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the prediction that the plan will succeed?
In the prompt: Sentence #1 frames the situation and states the problem that needs to be resolved --- a vitamin-A deficiency Sentence #2 presents a plan designed to solve the problem. Th Sentence #3 present some support for the plan. The plan's success depends on assumptions, such as: a) the SPK004 sweet potato will grow successfully there b) the folks there will be willing to plant & eat the SPK004 sweet potato instead of their traditional sweet potatoes. c) nutritionally, nothing else would be lost in a switch from traditional sweet potatoes to the SPK004 sweet potato OK, so we want answer that will strengthen the argument. Often on the GMAT CR, if the question is asking you to strengthen the argument, two or three of the incorrect answers will be weakeners. Conversely, when the CR asks you to weaken the argument, two or three of the incorrect answers will strengthen the argument. Always be on the lookout for incorrect answers that do the opposite of what you were asked to do. Let's look at these answer choices. A. There are other vegetables currently grown in the region that contain more beta-carotene than the currently cultivated varieties of sweet potato do. Well, if there are other vegetables currently grown that have more beta-carotene, then it would seem the folks there are already getting enough beta-carotene, and for some reason, they are not properly converting it to vitamin-A. It's unclear what the problem would be, but certainly adding a new sweet potato with more beta-carotene wouldn't necessarily solve anything. The plan will not solve the problem. This answer is a weakener, so it's incorrect. B. The flesh of SPK004 differs from that of the currently cultivated sweet potatoes in colors and textures, so traditional foods would look somewhat different when prepared from SPK004. When food is different looking --- especially different in both color and texture --- it can be hard to get folks set in their ways to try it. If a large proportion of the folks in these places either decide not to try the new sweet potato or try it and decide they don't like it, then many people will not eat it and will not get the benefit of the beta-carotene, and thus the vitamin-A deficiency will continue. The plan will not solve the problem. This answer is a weakener, so it's incorrect. C. For successful cultivation of SPK004, a soil significantly richer in nitrogen is needed than is needed for the varieties of sweet potato currently cultivated in the region. Hmmm. If the SPK004 sweet potato needs soil much richer in nitrogen, it sounds as if it's at least possible that it won't grow particularly well in these environments. If the farmers there can't grow it well or at all, then it won't replace the traditional sweet potatoes, and no one will benefit. The plan will not solve the problem. This answer is a weakener, so it's incorrect. D. There are no other varieties of sweet potato that are significantly richer in beta-carotene than SPK004 is. This is a particularly interesting one. We already can infer that the SPK004 sweet potato has more beta-carotene than the the traditional sweet potatoes in this region. That's the comparison that is meaningful in this argument. This answer choice provides the added information --- the SPK004 sweet potato also contains more beta-carotene than any other variety of sweet potato anywhere else --- China, Uganda, New Zealand, Alabama, etc. Well, that's interesting, but it's not particularly relevant. We already know the important comparison ---- the SPK004 sweet potato vs. sweet potatoes traditionally grown in these parts of South America. That's the part that is pertinent to the argument. The fact that the SPK004 sweet potato also contains more beta-carotene than any other variety of sweet potato in other places --- strictly speaking, this is irrelevant to the argument. Therefore, it is not a strengthener. This answer is incorrect. E. The currently cultivated varieties of sweet potato contain no important nutrients that SPK004 lacks. Well, we have just nuked the first four answers, so we hope this one works! Fortunately, this is almost identical to assumption (c) above. So, in switching from the traditional sweet potatoes to the SPK004 sweet potato, these folks will gain beta-carotene and will not lose anything other nutrient. This is a strengthener --- in fact, it's one of the assumptions on which the plan is based. If we were to deny this and assert the opposite of (E) --- in switching from the traditional sweet potatoes to the SPK004 sweet potato, these folks would beta-carotene but lose some other important nutrient --- then, that would weaken the argument, because it seems like the plan would just replace one problem (a vitamin-A deficiency) with another problem (a deficiency of some other nutrient). Denying (E) weakens the argument, which is further evidence that it's a strengthener. For all these reasons, (E) is the best answer. Notice that one strategy that helped significantly in the analysis of this question was finding assumptions before we approached the answer choices. That won't always work, but it works enough that it's a useful strategy. See this post for more on that strategy. Does all this make sense? Please let me know if you have any further questions.
Hotco oil burners, designed to be used in asphalt plants, are so efficient that Hotco will sell one to the Clifton Asphalt plant for no payment other than the cost savings between the total amount the asphalt plant actually paid for oil using its former burner during the last two years and the total amount it will pay for oil using the Hotco burner during the next two years. On installation, the plant will make an estimated payment, which will be adjusted after two years to equal the actual cost savings. Which of the following, if it occurred, would constitute a disadvantage for Hotco of the plan described above?
I am giving it a try here to explain this: Hotco will run into losses if the diference in the amount paid by Clifton asphalt manufacturing company in the last 2 yrs is close enuf to the cost that the compnay will pay in the nex t2 yrs. ok !! Now lets analyse the answers. A) Another manufacturer’s introduction to the market of a similarly efficient burner - there is no comparision with other manufacturers. irrelevant. INCORRECT B) The Clifton Asphalt plant’s need for more than one new burner. - out of scope. INCORRECT C) Very poor efficiency in the Clifton Asphalt plant’s old burner. - might sound true. but this is a catch. we cannot compare efficiencies of old and new burner.INCORRECT D) A decrease in the demand for asphalt. - we have no clue what demand of asphalt has to do with oil burners. this is verbal section in gmat not a physics exam in a college. INCORRECT. E) A steady increase in the price of oil beginning soon after the new burner is installed- If the price of oil increases, the company will have to pay more for its oil in the coming 2 yrs. so the difference in price will reduce and HETCO will receive less in return. - CORRECT.
Last year Comfort Airlines had twice as many delayed flights as the year before, but the number of complaints from passengers about delayed flights went up three times. It is unlikely that this disproportionate increase in complaints was rooted in an increase in overall dissatisfaction with the service Comfort Airlines provides, since the airline made a special effort to improve other aspects of its service last year. Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain the disproportionate increase in customer complaints?
Passage analysis Last year Comfort Airlines had twice as many delayed flights as the year before, Last year, Comfort Airlines had many delayed flights Last year, the number of flights delayed was double the number of flights delayed the year before that. but the number of complaints from passengers about delayed flights went up three times. Passengers complained about these delayed flights. Last year the number of complaints were three times the number in the year before last. We can infer that though the number of flights delayed doubled last year, the number of complaints about delayed flights tripled disproportionately. It is unlikely that this disproportionate increase in complaints was rooted in an increase in overall dissatisfaction with the service Comfort Airlines provides, since the airline made a special effort to improve other aspects of its service last year. This disproportionate increase in complaints was not because of an increase in overall dissatisfaction with the service of Comfort Airlines because Comfort Airlines put in special effort to improve the other areas of its service last year. Conclusion Overall dissatisfaction with the service provided by Comfort Airlines is unlikely to be the reason behind the disproportionate increase in complaints by the passengers. Pre-thinking Strengthen Framework Now per our understanding of the passage, let’s first write down the strengthen framework: What new information will help us believe more in the conclusion Overall dissatisfaction with the service provided by Comfort Airlines is unlikely to be the reason behind the disproportionate increase in complaints by the passengers. Given that Last year, the number of delayed fights of CA was double the number of delayed flights the year before. But the number of complaints last year was three time the number of complaints the year before. CA made special improvements to the other aspects of its service last year. Thought process If the number of flights delayed doubled, then one would expect the complaints also to more or less double. In this case, the assumption made would be that the number of total passengers of CA had not been higher last year than the year before (that is the number of passengers had either remained the same or reduced somewhat). But the number of complaints has unexpectedly risen by three times. This in spite of the fact that CA made specially improved the other aspects of its service(other than the delay aspect). So, CA is confident that the unexpected increase in the number of complaints is not because of The other aspects of the service (they have taken care of that last year itself) The usual number of delays (had it been because of the number of delays, then the number of complaints was expected to go up accordingly with the increase in the number of flights delayed - twice - and not go up three times). Then what has led to the disproportionate increase in complaints? Strengthener Clearly, there is something else that the passengers are complaining about. Any statement/evidence indicating a factor/reason that could have caused the disproportionate increase will strengthen the airline’ conclusion that the complaints are not because of overall dissatisfaction with their services. Answer Choices Option A The passage mentions “the numbers of delayed flights” quite explicitly. Thus the total number of flights does not matter at all to the discussion. Thus, this is not the correct choice. Option B The reason why the flights had been delayed does not matter. We need to find the reason behind the disproportionately increased number of complaints. Therefore, this is irrelevant to the discussion. Thus, this is not the correct answer choice. Option C Why the improvements were made is not important as long as they were made and therefore the disproportionate increase in complaints could not have been related to the service aspect of the airlines. This option does not give any alternative reason behind the increased number of complaints. Thus, this is not the correct choice. Option D This option introduces a factor about the delays that has not been considered in the argument. The argument only looks at the number of delays and the number of complaints. What about the kind of delay itself? This option says the delays were lengthier on average and this could have led more than the expected number of passengers to complain about them. This is in line with pre-thinking. Thus, this is the correct answer choice. Option E The option implies that the average number of passengers per flight was either the same or less than the year before last. This further confuses us. It still does not give the reason why the number of complaints increased threefold if the average number of passengers did not increase. Thus, this is not the correct answer choice.
A new law gives ownership of patents—documents providing exclusive right to make and sell an invention—to universities, not the government, when those patents result from government-sponsored university research. Administrators at Logos University plan to sell any patents they acquire to corporations in order to fund programs to improve undergraduate teaching. Which of the following, if true, would cast most doubt on the viability of the college administrators’ plan described above?
First of all,a very interesting doubt! After a long time, I thought about a CR question for 15 minutes. I'll first discuss option A and then option D: Option A: (A) Profit-making corporations interested in developing products based on patents held by universities are likely to try to serve as exclusive sponsors of ongoing university research projects. What does it mean? It means that corporations are likely to do one thing (one thing = exclusive sponsor of ongoing research projects). Does it in any way mean that they will not do the other thing (other thing = fund programs to improve undergraduate teaching)? Rather, on the contrary, the universities may make it a condition for anyone becoming an exclusive sponsor to also fund undergraduate teaching. Isn't it? Option D: First of all, your doubt here is different from that of dav373. He said that option D indicates that logos university will not patents and hence, this option is irrelevant since we are talking about patents and not the absence of patents. On the other hand, you say that if logos university has a patent, then corporations will need to pay logos university to access the payment and therefore, this option does not weaken the argument. Am I correct in my understanding? Now, here I agree with dav373 that if the research is duplicate of the research already completed by corporations, then there is hardly a possibility of logos university getting patents. In such a case, since it does not have patents, it will not be able to fund programs to improve undergraduate training. So, now, we are less sure of their plan. Therefore, option D actually weakens the viability of the plan. Now, you can see that I disagree with dav373 that option D is irrelevant just because it means that logos university will not get patents. If I say that I plan to sell my upcoming book to pay off my tuition fees. Can't you weaken my plan by saying that no one will even publish that book? Thanks,
Most of the year, the hermit thrush, a North American songbird, eats a diet consisting mainly of insects, but in autumn, as the thrushes migrate to their Central and South American wintering grounds, they feed almost exclusively on wild berries. Wild berries, however, are not as rich in calories as insects, yet thrushes need to consume plenty of calories in order to complete their migration. One possible explanation is that berries contain other nutrients that thrushes need for migration and that insects lack. Which of the following, if true, most seriously calls into question the explanation given for the thrush’s diet during migration?
Premise - Hermits feed on insects most of the times but during migration they feed on wild berries though wild berries are not as rich in calories as insects are and Hermits require plenty of calories during migration. Conclusion - Berries contain other nutrients that Hermits need for migration and that insects lack. If we want to weaken the conclusion we should look for a choice which provides an alternate reason as to why the Hermits prefer eating berries during Migration. There could be various reasons one can think of - It is possible that no insects are available that the Hermits can eat during migration. - Or some other reason. A. Hermit thrushes, if undernourished, are unable to complete their autumn migration before the onset of winter. - There is not mention of undernourishment in either the premise or the conclusion. This statement does not affect the conclusion in any way. B. Insect species contain certain nutrients that are not found in Wild berries. - This statement too does not affect the conclusion. Even if Insect species contain certain nutrients that are not found in berries , this choice does not provide any reason as to why the hermits prefer berries to insects during migration. C. For songbirds, catching insects requires the expenditure of significantly more calories than eating wild berries does. - This choice provides an alternate reason to the fact that hermits prefer berries. If catching insects requires significantly more calories than catching wild berries does then the hermits by choice have berries because they would want to conserve energy during their migration. D. Along the hermit thrushes’ migration routes, insects are abundant throughout the migration season. - Does not provide any reason as to why hermits prefer berries. E. There are some species of wild berries that hermit thrushes generally do not eat, even though these berry species are exceptionally rich in calories. - Does not affect the conclusion. Even if there are some species that are rich and hermits do not eat them this choice does not provide any alternate cause. =================================================================== Prethink : What's the reason that Thrushs consume only Wild Berries not Insects during migration ? Check the answers - A. Hermit thrushes, [color=#ff0000]if undernourished, are unable to complete their autumn migration before the onset of winter. Out of scope , this options talks about undernourishment. B. Insect species contain certain nutrients that are not found in Wild berries. Out of scope , this options talks about other nutrients which is not under discussion in the present context. C. For songbirds, catching insects requires the expenditure of significantly more calories than eating wild berries does. Calorie Used : Catching Insects > Eating wild berries ; for same calorific intake... Say 10 KCAL of Energy is consumed ... Catching Insects = 4KCAL Eating wild berries = 3 KCAL Energy Requirement for flight = 5KCAL Keeping in mind that the bird requires energy for flight it is definitely beneficial for the bird to use it economically and consume high calorie food/nutrients... D. Along the hermit thrushes’ migration routes, insects are abundant throughout the migration season. So, why do the birds not catch insects ? Can not weaken the conclusion. E. There are some species of wild berries that hermit thrushes generally do not eat, even though these berry species are exceptionally rich in calories. Completely out of scope and irrelevant under present context.. Hence IMHO definitely with (C) _________________ Thanks and Regards
One variety of partially biodegradable plastic beverage container is manufactured from small bits of plastic bound together by a degradable bonding agent such as cornstarch. Since only the bonding agent degrades, leaving the small bits of plastic, no less plastic refuse per container is produced when such containers are discarded than when comparable nonbiodegradable containers are discarded. Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument above?
(A)Both partially biodegradable and non-biodegradable plastic beverage containers can be crushed completely flat by refuse compactors [The argument is about plastic waste per container (Biodegradable (B) and non- biodegradable (NB)). Therefore this is completely irrelevant to the argument – Eliminate it] (B)The partially biodegradable plastic beverage container is made with more plastic than comparable non-biodegradable ones in order to compensate for the weakening effect of the bonding agents [weakens the argument that both B and N-B generates same waste per container - hold it]. (C)Many consumers are ecology-minded and prefer to buy a product sold in partially biodegradable plastic beverage containers rather than in non-biodegradable containers, even if the price is higher. [This argument is not about consumer buying habits – Eliminate it] (D)The manufacturing process for partially biodegradable plastic beverage containers results in less plastic than the manufacturing plastic beverage containers. [This argument is not about manufacturing process of Biodegradable OR non- biodegradable – Eliminate it] (E) Technological problems with recycling currently prevent the reuse as food or beverage containers of the plastic from either type of plastic beverage container. [ Technological usage or problems are definately out of the scope of the argument – Eliminate it] Answer: B
There is a great deal of geographical variation in the frequency of many surgical procedures—up to tenfold variation per hundred thousand between different areas in the numbers of hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies. To support a conclusion that much of the variation is due to unnecessary surgical procedure, it would be most important to establish which of the following?
There is a great deal of geographical variation in the frequency of many surgical procedures—up to tenfold variation per hundred thousand between different areas in the numbers of hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies. To support a conclusion that much of the variation is due to unnecessary surgical procedure, it would be most important to establish which of the following? (A) A local board of review to each hospital examines the records of every operation to determine whether the surgical procedure was necessary. --It weakens the argument (B) The variation is unrelated to factors (other than the surgical procedures themselves) that influence the incidence of diseases for which surgery might be considered. --Correct. It removes the possibility that any other factor might impact the procedure (C) There are several categories of surgical procedure (other than hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies) that are often performed unnecessarily. --Out of scope (D) For certain surgical procedures, it is difficult to determine after the operation whether the procedures were necessary or whether alternative treatment would have succeeded. --This weakens the argument (E) With respect to how often they are performed unnecessarily, hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies are representative of surgical procedures in general. --Out of scope