GMATNTS Tests

GMAT Critical Reasoning Questions Practice Test 4


GMAT
Critical Reasoning Questions Practice Test 3 for those who want to test their GMAT – Graduate Management Admission Test skills. GMAT is a standardized test used for the evaluation of students seeking admission in BBA, MBA, and post-graduate studies in Pakistan or abroad. Management studies provide you with the skills, preparation, and credentials you need to accelerate your career growth. MBA is the most popular degree program in Pakistan. LUMS and IBA MBA programs are the most applied in Pakistan.

Each quiz question in this course is made up of proven interesting researched concepts that test your awareness and grasp of the subject. Detailed feedback for the quiz answers is provided too.

INSTRUCTIONS:

  • This Quiz is related to GMAT Critical Reasoning Questions Practice Test 3in this seriesIf you have good understanding about the subject, then you can attempt itThere will be 10 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) in this testQuestions will be randomly changed every time you start this testYou should practice more and more to get high marksYou can retake this test as many time as you likeIf you feel that any Incorrect Answer to a Question, simply Comment us about the Question.

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Fashion Executive: Last year, our company had $5 million in revenue, and was featured in 8 major articles in the fashion press. This year, our company’s revenue has practically quadrupled, so we should expect to be featured in at least 20 major articles in the fashion press. Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the fashion executive’s reasoning in the above argument?

Correct! Wrong!

Here is the answer explanation: The executive argues that, if $5M in revenue gets the company 8 articles, $20M in revenue ought to get the company at least 20 articles – that is, that the number of times the company will be featured in the press is proportional to the company’s revenue. The question asks which of the statements, if true, weighs most heavily against the executive’s reasoning. A. This statement support’s the executive’s conclusion. Incorrect. B. This statement provides some support to the idea that revenue is proportional to press. Incorrect. C. The passage gives no indication that New York fashion journalists would be disinterested in writing about a fashion line that has become successful in the fashionable city of Milan. Incorrect. D. This statement seems to imply that low revenues can correlate to more feature articles in the press. The statement does not indicate that high revenues could not also lead to more feature articles in the press. Comparing the experience of an automaker to that of a fashion line also introduces the major assumption that the two are analogous. Incorrect. E. The explanation that revenue increased due to the fashion line’s introducing a discount line sold in stores not highly regarded by the fashion press casts serious doubt on the conclusion that the press would feature the line in many more articles than it did last year. Answer choice E is correct. The answer is E.

The sense of delayed gratification, of working now for later pleasure, has helped shape the economic behavior of our society. However, that sense is no longer nurtured as consistently in our children as it once was. For example, it used to take a bit of patience to put together the toys that children got the cereal boxes; now the toys come from the boxes whole. Which of the following is an assumption made by the argument?

Correct! Wrong!

OFFICIAL EXPLANATION The phrases “delayed gratification” and “working now for later pleasure” clearly refer to somebody’s effort or sacrifice at an earlier time which is designed to yield, for that same person, pleasure at a later time. If toy components packed in cereal boxes are to provide this experience for children, then C has to be true. Therefore,C is the correct answer. A is not the correct answer. The argument indicates nothing about the reasons for the change form packing components to packing complete toys. B is incorrect. This choice may or may not be true as far as the argument goes. The argument suggests only that the influence of promotional gimmicks has changed in character, not necessarily that it has increased. The fourth answer choice is also incorrect. The argument strongly suggests that the pleasure comes after the effort or the work involved in assembling it, not that it accompanies the effort or work. So while this choice may be true, there is no indication that it is an assumption made by the argument. The last choice is incorrect. The references to the passage of time found in the argument (“delayed” and “now…later” in the first sentence; “patience” in the third sentence) concern the time from the receipt of unassembled toys to the completion of assembly. The argument neither says nor presumes anything about the length of time for which pleasure form a given toy will persist.

Ythex has developed a small diesel engine that produces 30 percent less particulate pollution than the engine made by its main rival, Onez, now widely used in Marania; Ythex's engine is well-suited for use in the thriving warehousing businesses in Marania, although it costs more than the Onez engine. The Maranian government plans to ban within the next two years the use of diesel engines with more than 80 percent of current diesel engine particulate emissions in Marania, and Onez will probably not be able to retool its engine to reduce emissions to reach this target. So if the ban is passed, the Ythex engine ought to sell well in Marania after that time. Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument above depends?

Correct! Wrong!

Answer Choice Analysis (A) Marania's warehousing and transhipment business buys more diesel engines of any size than other types of engines. INCORRECT Comparison between the number of diesel engines and other types of engines, that too bought by only one type of business, is out of context of the question. Hence this cannot be the right answer. (B) Ythex is likely to be able to reduce the cost of its small diesel engine within the next two years. INCORRECT Even if the cost is not reducible, once the ban is effective, the engine ought to sell well for its higher quality and for being the best option available. Hence this is not a correct answer choice. (C) The Maranian government is generally favorable to anti-pollution regulations. INCORRECT What the Maranian government generally favours is an out of context information and has no relevant effect on our argument. Hence this is a wrong answer choice. (D) The government's ban on high levels of pollution caused by diesel engines, if passed, will not be difficult to enforce. INCORRECT Even though effectiveness of the ban must be assumed, the relative difficulty to make the ban effective is not relevant. Hence this is an incorrect answer choice. (E) The other manufacturers of small diesel engines in Marania, if there are any, have not produced an engine as popular and clean-running as Ythex's new engine. CORRECT This is in line with our pre-thinking assumption 1 and hence the correct answer.

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Head of a regional psychiatric association: As an organization, we have found that patients over the last two decades are increasingly likely to suffer from depression that in some cases can lead to an early death. At the same time, we have found that those patients who already practice some form of spirituality tend to be less likely to suffer from depression and thus to live longer and healthier lives. A recent study in a major psychological journal confirms this experience. As a result, we suggest that our members begin encouraging their patients to explore spirituality in the hopes that it will provide them with longer and healthier lives. The primary argument made by the head of the regional psychological association depends on which of the following assumptions?

Correct! Wrong!

OFFICIAL EXPLANATION Overview: In this question, the head of a regional psychiatric association makes a statement about a study that suggests the importance of spirituality in helping patients live longer, healthier lives. The head of the association also comments that depression has been noted, in some cases, to shorten the lives of patients. The speaker concludes that members of the psychiatric association should encourage patients to pursue spirituality in the expectation that it will provide them with longer and healthier lives. The question asks the student to consider on which assumption the speaker’s conclusion is based. The Correct Answer: E In reaching his conclusion, the head of the psychiatric association does not distinguish between different forms of spirituality. As a result, the conclusion he reaches suggests that all forms of spirituality are equally healthy and that all will be equally beneficial to the patients. Answer choice (E) therefore, is, the most correct answer. The Incorrect Answers: A While the head of the psychiatric association indicates that some of the patients being treated by members of the association have suffered from depression, he does not indicate that all of them have. Therefore, answer choice (A) may be eliminated, because the conclusion in the passage is clearly not based on this assumption. B As the head of the psychiatric association only mentions the practice of spirituality as being healthy, it cannot be assumed from the passage that he bases his conclusions on the practice of a specific kind of spirituality or that the patients who experienced positive results from the practice of spirituality were practicing the same form. Answer (B) cannot be correct. C The head of the psychiatric association indicates that the positive aspects of spirituality were observed among the patients, but he does not comment anywhere on whether members of the psychiatric association practice spirituality or whether they should. Rather, his conclusions relate directly to the patients practicing spirituality, and it cannot be assumed that his conclusion is based on the importance of spirituality to the association members. (It might be true that he also recommends the practice of spirituality to members, but this is an inference from his comments, not an assumption on which they are based.) D The head of the psychiatric association does say specifically that depression, “in some cases can lead to an early death.” He does not suggest, however, that the result of depression is inevitably death. Further, his conclusion that the members of the psychiatric association should encourage patients to practice spirituality is not based on the assumption that depression will always lead to death, but rather that it can shorten the lives of some patients. Answer choice (D) is incorrect.

Nineteenth-century art critics judged art by the realism of its method of representation. It was assumed that the realistic method developed from primitive beginnings to the perfection of formal realism. It is one of the permanent gains of the artistic revolution of the twentieth century that we are rid of this type of aesthetics. It can be inferred from the information given that the artistic revolution of the twentieth century had which of the following effects?

Correct! Wrong!

OFFICIAL EXPLANATION The first two sentences of the passage focus on realism as the standard used in past art criticism. The final sentence says that the twentieth century artistic revolution got rid of aesthetics of the kind that was defined by this standard. Thus,the first choice is the correct answerbecause it states this inference. B is incorrect. The passage does not imply that primitive art was simple and hence could not imply anything about critics’ attitudes toward such simplicity. C is incorrect. The passage says that realism was rejected as the standard by which all art should be judged, not as a form of artistic representation. D is also incorrect. If it could be assumed that the nineteenth century standards include the traditional standards in their entirety, the passage would imply that the tradition is challenged rather than, as this choice states, reinforced. The last answer choice is incorrect. The passage does not imply that twentieth century critics understand the evolution or nature of art, only that they are free of a previous misconception.

Rye sown in the fall and plowed into the soil in early spring leaves a residue that is highly effective at controlling broad-leaved weeds, but unfortunately for only about forty-five days. No major agricultural crop matures from seed in as little as forty-five days. Synthetic herbicides, on the other hand, although not any longer-lasting, can be reapplied as the crop grows. Clearly, therefore, for major agricultural crops, plowing rye into the soil can play no part in effective weed control. The argument is most vulnerable to the objection that it fails to:

Correct! Wrong!

I believe the answer is D. A The argument does consider the minor crops B Does talk about an alternative with synthetic herbicide C Does distinguish between rye and synthetic D Looks the best to me. The argument is very harsh on rye, " play no part". There could be a part rye could play if rye and synthetic herbicide is used together E Irrelevant to the dicussion ============================================================== (A) consider that there might be minor, quick-growing crops that do mature in forty-five days or less - Not about minor crops so not valid (B) identify any alternative method of weed control that could be used instead of the method it rejects irrelevant to the discussion (C) distinguish among the various kinds of synthetic herbicides irrelevant to the discussion (D) allow for the possibility of combining the two weed-control methods it mentions this makes sense as the author has failed to consider this and discard the role of plowing rye (E) allow for the possibility that plants other than rye, handled the same way, might have the same effect out of scope

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In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a ninja festival, a celebration of Japan’s heritage that reflects on its feudal past while exalting its pop culture driven present. But clearly only children take this festival seriously, for they are the only attendees who bother to dress up as ninjas. Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

Correct! Wrong!

This questions works on a simple rule if P, then Q ==> ~Q --> ~P For this condition ~P--> ~Q is always incorrect. Here P is attendees who bother to dress up as ninjas and Q is Take the festival seriously. A.Any attendee who dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously. : This is restatement, hence can't be Assumption. B.No attendee who takes the festival seriously would fail to dress up as a ninja. Correct as per above rule. C.Anyone who is not dressed up as a ninja is not attending the festival. : Incorrect as per above rule. D.The festival organizers have instituted a ninja-themed dress code. : Irrelevant. E.If an attendee is not dressed as a ninja, then that attendee will not be taken seriously by other attendees. : Same as C.

Super Express Shipping Company has implemented a new distribution system that can get almost every package to its destination the day after it is sent. The company worries that this more efficient system will result in lower sales of its premium next-day delivery service, because its two-day service will usually arrive the following day anyway. The company plans to encourage sales of its next-day service by intentionally delaying delivery of its two-day packages so that they will not be delivered the following day, even if the package arrives at its destination city in time for next-day delivery. The company's plan assumes that:

Correct! Wrong!

Before the new distribution system, two services are available - regular service, which delivers products in 2 days and premium service, which delivers products in 1 day (next day). After the new distribution system, regular service will deliver products to the destination next day. At the same time, premium service also delivers products next day. That means, regular service is offering the same benefit (i.e. next dat delivery) as the premium service offers (i.e. next dat delivery). So, many premium service sales may become regular service sales. To avoid this drop in premium sales, regular service delivery is intentionally delayed (conclusion) to deliver the product in two days. Super Express Shipping company assumes that the customers, who are supposed to get the delivery next day (using regular service) but are getting it in two days, are fine with two day delivery. Choice A is close to the above assumption If most people didn't have any preference for either two day or next day, then there would be, in the first place, any premium service, so Choice B is not relevant Choice C is a kind of another conclusion, which itself requires an assumption to hold true. Clearly not an answer Choice D, how expensive is not discussed in the argument, so out of scope Choice E, no mention of competing companies and their services, and no mention of how these competing companies deliveries impact sales of Super Express Shipping company regular and premium services, so out of scope

Superficially, college graduates in 1982 resembled college graduates of 1964; they were fairly conservative, well dressed, and interested in tradition; they respected their parents. But there was a deep-seated difference: a majority of the members of the class of 1982 who were surveyed in their freshman year stated that making a good income was an important reason for their decision to go to college. The statements in the passage, if true, best support which of the following conclusions?

Correct! Wrong!

OFFICIAL EXPLANATION The passage claims that 1982 and 1964 college graduates were similar except that a majority of the 1982 graduates stated during their freshman year that making a good income was an important reason for going to college. This implies that fewer than half of the 1964 class, as freshmen, stated that making a good income was an important reason for going to college.B states a consequence of this implication and is the correct answer. A is incorrect. The passage discusses differences in financial reasons for attending college, as expressed by freshmen in the two classes. Nothing is stated about the financial worries of either class as graduates. Neither is it clear from the passage that financial worries are necessarily implied by the desire to make a good income. C is also incorrect. The passage implies that desire for a good income was a more important reason for the members of the class of 1982 to decide to go to college than for the members of the class of 1964. However, the passage does not provide information on whether a college education provides more, less, or the same impact on income for the 1964 graduates as compared to the 1982 graduates. This fourth choice is incorrect. The passage does not describe or imply any difference in the reasons for attending college between freshman year and college graduation for either class. The last answer choice is also incorrect. The passage states that the 1964 and 1982 college graduates were both firmly conservative. Thus, the passage does not support any conclusion that the two classes differed in degree of conservatism.

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The CEO of a major fast-food chain just released a statement indicating that the chain has revamped its ingredient list and revised its menu options so that all selections on the menu are now healthier than any of the menus from competing fast-food chains. Among the changes that will be made, the fast-food chain will be eliminating unsaturated fats and downsizing portions. He claims, "We've heard the request of our customers for healthier meals, and with the changes we're making we'll be offering our customers better choices. Our customers will now have healthy fast-food options that put all other fast-food chains to shame." Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the CEO's claim of offering healthier selections to customers?

Correct! Wrong!

OFFICIAL EXPLANATION Overview: Question presents a scenario in which the CEO of a fast-food chain makes an announcement about upcoming revisions to the chain’s menu. The company is completely overhauling its menu items so that all items offered will now be healthier. Specifically, the announcement notes that the company will be removing unhealthy fats and offering smaller portions. The question asks the student to consider which of the answer choices most undermines the effect of the CEO’s announcement. To find the correct answer, it is necessary to focus on the details in the CEO’s comments and on what, in particular, would call into question the validity of the CEO’s remarks. The Correct Answer: A Answer choice (A) states that although the fast-food chain is indeed making the announced changes in its menu, it is also retaining certain addictive additives that have, by implication, long been in its food. As a result, the continued inclusion of these additives calls into question the company’s actual commitment to offering healthy foods and raises questions about the claim that the company’s food will be a healthier option than that offered by other fast-food chains. Therefore, choice (A) most seriously undermines the CEO’s statements. The Incorrect Answers: B That the CEO is receiving a large bonus is potentially suspicious, but it does not by itself undermine the CEO’s claim about providing healthier food options. In other words, nothing about the bonus suggests that the menu will not in fact offer healthier items than before; answer choice (B) does not address evidence for or against the CEO’s. There is no reason to be surprised that the company is rewarding the CEO in advance for a plan that will benefit the company. Thus, answer choice (B) is incorrect. C The response of the focus group calls into question the way that customers will respond to the food, but it does not call into question the CEO’s comments about the healthy qualities of the food. Thus, answer choice (C) may be eliminated immediately. D While the merits of advertising to young children might be arguable, the ads themselves seem to support the company’s claim that it is offering healthier choices by encouraging children to request the better menu items when they visit the fast-food chains. As a result, this answer choice seems to bring some validity to the CEO’s claims of a commitment to better health, and it is incorrect. E The CEO makes no claim to having removed all items from the old menu. Instead, he claims that the ingredients have been improved and the menu revised. Answer choice (E) does more to support the CEO’s claims than it does to undermine it, so it is incorrect.

 

 

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